Skip to main content

Silydianin in chloroform soluble fraction of Cirsium japonicum leaf inhibited adipocyte differentiation by regulating adipogenic transcription factors and enzymes


Cirsium japonicum, Compositae, a wild perennial herb found in Korea, Japan and China, has been used in traditional medicines. Effects of various solvent extracts of C. japonicum leaf on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1cells were determined, and its mechanism was elucidated. 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with adipogenic hormone mixture mixed with various solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water) of C. japonicum leaf. Adipogenesis was evaluated by triglyceride accumulation and expression of adipogenic genes by reversetranscription-polymerase chain reaction. All solvent fractions of C. japonicum leaf inhibited adipogenesis in adipocytes by decreasing triglycerol concentration in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions of C. japonicum, the chloroform-soluble fraction was found to have the highest inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation. Silydianin was identified as a major bioactive component in chloroform-soluble fraction of C. japonicum. The extract suppressed the expression of genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, lipoprotein lipase, and fatty acid synthetase involved in adipogenesis, indicating that chloroform-soluble fraction of C. japonicum inhibited lipid accumulation in adipocyte by suppression genes involving adipogenesis. Thus, C. japonicum leaf extract containing silydianin could be a good natural candidate for the management of obesity.


  • Andersen C, Rayalam S, Della-Fera MA, and Baile CA (2010) Phytochemicals and adipogenesis. Biofactors 36, 415–422.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bradford MA (1976) Rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72, 248–254.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bulló M, García-Lorda P, Peinado-Onsurbe J, Hernández M, Del Castillo D, Argilés JM et al. (2002) TNFα expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese and morbid obese females: relationship to adipocyte LPL activity and leptin synthesis. Int J Obes 26, 652–658.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caro JF, Dohm LG, Pories WJ, and Sinha MS (1989) Cellular alterations in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue responsible for insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diab Metab Rev 5, 665–689.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Choi BH, Ahn IS, Kim YH, Park JW, Lee SY, Hyun CK et al. (2006) Berberine reduces the expression of adipogenic enzymes and inflammatory molecules of 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Exp Mol Med 38, 599–605.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cornelius P, MacDougald OA, and Lane MD (1994) Regulation of adipocyte development. Annu Rev Nutr 14, 99–129.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gregorie M, Smas CM, and Sul HS (1998) Understanding adipocyte differentiation. Physiol Rev 78, 783–809.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hwang JT, Kim SH, Lee MS, Kim SH, Yang HJ, Kim MJ et al. (2007) Antiobesity effects of ginsenoside Rh2 are associated with the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 364, 1002–1008.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim JE and Chen J (2004) Regulation of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gammar activity by mammalian target of rapamycin and amino acid in adipogenesis. Diabetes 53, 2748–2756.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liao Z, Wu Z and Wu M (2012) Cirsium japonicum flavones enhance adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Biol Pharm Bull 35, 855–860.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lui S, Luo X, Li D, Zhang J, Qui D, Lui W et al. (2006) Tumor inhibition and improve immunity in mice treated with flavone from Cirsium japonicum DC. Int Immuno pharmacol 6, 1387–1393.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mackall JC, Student AK, Polakis SE, and Lane MD (1976) Induction of lipogenesis during differentiation in a “preadipocyte” cell line. J Biol Chem 251, 6462–6464.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Moussalli C, Down RW, and May JM (1986) Potentiation by glucose of lipolytic responsiveness of human adipocytes. Diabetes 35, 759–763.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Palmer DG, Rutter GA, and Tavaré JM (2002) Insulin-stimulated fatty acid synthase gene expression does not require increased sterol response element binding protein1 transcription in primary adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 291, 439–443.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pi-sunyer FX (2006) The medical risks of obesity. Obes Surg 12, 6S–11S.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rayalam S, Della-Fera MA, and Baile CA (2008) Phytochemicals and regulation of the adipocyte life cycle. J Nutr Biochem 19, 717–726.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yin J, Heo SI, and Wang MH (2008) Antioxidant and anticancer activities of methanol and water extracts from leavers of Cirsium japonicum. J Appl Biol Chem 51, 160–164.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhi F, Kong LY, and Peng SX (2001) Progress in chemical and pharmacological studies on Cirsium japonicum. Zhong Cao Yao 32, 664–666.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gun-Hee Kim.

Additional information

H.-S. Park and S.-M. Shim contributed equally.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Park, HS., Shim, SM. & Kim, GH. Silydianin in chloroform soluble fraction of Cirsium japonicum leaf inhibited adipocyte differentiation by regulating adipogenic transcription factors and enzymes. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 56, 709–713 (2013).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • adipocyte differentiation
  • adipogenic transcription
  • Cirsium japonicum
  • Silydianin
  • 3T3-L1 cells