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Table 3 Techniques used for characterization of PE biodegradation

From: Biodegradation of polyethylene: a brief review

Techniques used Changes in PE Measured characteristics References
FTIR Functional groups on the surface Keto-carbonyl index (I1715/I1565); Ester-carbonyl index (I1740/I1465); Vinyl-bound index (I1640/I1465);
Double bound index (I908/I1465);
C-O stretching (I1100)
[3, 6, 34, 38, 41, 74, 83, 93, 94, 105, 113]
Contact angle drop deposition Hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity Contac angle with water, Surface energy [6, 91, 105]
FTIR/DSC/XRD Crystallinity Crystallinity; Melting temperature; Relative crystallinity; Lamellar thickness [2, 76]
HT-SEC/GPC Molecular weight distribution Changes in the molecular weight [38];
[41];
SEM/AFM Surface topography Molecular weight distribution topography [6, 105]
Instron Mechanical properties Tensile strength; Strain energy;  % Elongation and extension [8, 14, 18]
Gravimetric CO2 evolution Consumption of the polymer Weight loss [34, 74, 93]